The Hemp & Environment Research Library contains links to published journal articles researching industrial hemp’s environmental life cycle performance and phytoremediation potential.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies the environmental impact of producing a product from cradle to gate (raw material to user), cradle to grave (raw material to disposal) or cradle to cradle (raw material to material reuse). 

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Hemp & the Environment

The LCAs within this library include LCAs of industrial hemp within the:

  • Composite Industry
  • Construction Industry
  • Petrochemical Industry
  • Pulp Paper Industry
  • Textile Industry
  • Hemp Field Production

The phytoremediation studies analyze hemp’s ability to absorb contaminants from soils, sludges, sediments, surface water and groundwater.

Composite Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Baghaei, Behnaz, Mikael Skrifvars, and Lena Berglin. “Manufacture and characterisation of thermoplastic composites made from PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarn prepregs.” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 50 (2013): 93-101.

Bourmaud, Alain, Antoine Le Duigou, and Christophe Baley. “What is the technical and environmental interest in reusing a recycled polypropylene–hemp fibre composite?.” Polymer Degradation and Stability 96.10 (2011): 1732-1739.

Joshi, Satish V., et al. “Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?.Composites Part A: Applied science and manufacturing 35.3 (2004): 371-376.

La Rosa, A. D., et al. “Life cycle assessment of a novel hybrid glass-hemp/thermoset composite.Journal of Cleaner Production 44 (2013): 69-76.

Patel, Harish. Hemp fibre reinforced sheet moulding compounds. Diss. Queen Mary, University of London, 2012.

Ricardo da Silva Vieira, Paulo Canaveir. (2008) “Life Cycle Assessment on a Bus Body Com ponent Based on Hemp Fiber and PTP.” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, May 2010, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 368-375

Santulli, C., and A. P. Caruso. “A comparative study on falling weight impact properties of jute/epoxy and hemp/epoxy laminates.Malaysian Polymer Journal 4.1 (2009): 19-29.

Schmehl, Meike, et al. “LCA on a bus body component based on biomaterials.” Presentation at 3rd International Conference on Life Cycle Management, August. Vol. 27. 2007.

Schmidt, W. and Beyer, H., “Life Cycle Study on a Natural Fibre Reinforced Component,” SAE Technical Paper 982195, 1998, doi:10.4271/982195.

Shahzad, Asim. “Hemp fiber and its composites–a review.Journal of Composite Materials 46.8 (2012): 973-986.

Wötzel, K., Wirth, R. and Flake, M. (1999), “Life cycle studies on hemp fibre reinforced components and ABS for automotive parts. Angew. Makromol.” Chem., 272: 121–127.

Petrochemical Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Casas, Xaquín Acosta, and Joan Rieradevall i Pons. “Environmental analysis of the energy use of hemp–analysis of the comparative life cycle: diesel oil vs. hemp–diesel.International journal of agricultural resources, governance and ecology 4.2 (2005): 133-139.

González-García, Sara, et al. “Life cycle assessment of hemp hurds use in second generation ethanol production.biomass and bioenergy 36 (2012): 268-279.

Muneer, Faraz. “Evaluation of the sustainability of hemp fiber reinforced wheat gluten plastics.” (2013).

Wiloso, Edi Iswanto, Reinout Heijungs, and Geert R. de Snoo. “LCA of second generation bioethanol: A review and some issues to be resolved for good LCA practice.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16.7 (2012): 5295-5308.

Construction Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Daly, Patrick, Paolo Ronchetti, and Tom Woolley. “Hemp lime bio-composite as a building material in irish construction.Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland (2012).

de Bruijn, Paulien. “Hemp Concretes Mechanical Properties using both Shives and Fibres, Licentiate Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Landscape Planning.Horticulture and Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (2008).

Ip, Kenneth, and Andrew Miller. “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of hemp–lime wall constructions in the UK.Resources, Conservation and Recycling 69 (2012): 1-9.

Latif, Eshrar, et al. “Potential for research on hemp insulation in the UK construction sector.” (2010).

Prétot, Sylvie, Florence Collet, and Charles Garnier. “Life cycle assessment of a hemp concrete wall: Impact of thickness and coating.Building and Environment 72 (2014): 223-231.

Ventura, Anne, et al. “Action-oriented Life Cycle Assessment: case study of hemp based insulation products for buildings.19th LCA case studies symposium. 2013.

Zampori, Luca, Giovanni Dotelli, and Valeria Vernelli. “Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.Environmental science & technology 47.13 (2013): 7413-7420.

Hemp Pulp Industry Life Cycle Assessments

da Silva Vieira, Ricardo, et al. “Industrial hemp or eucalyptus paper?.The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15.4 (2010): 368-375.

González-García, S., et al. “Life cycle assessment of raw materials for non-wood pulp mills: Hemp and flax.Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54.11 (2010): 923-930.

Textile Industry Life Cycle Assessment

van der Werf, Hayo MG, and Lea Turunen. “The environmental impacts of the production of hemp and flax textile yarn.Industrial Crops and Products 27.1 (2008): 1-10.

Field Production Life Cycle Assessments

Carus, Michael, et al. “The European Hemp Industry: Cultivation, processing and applications for fibres, shivs and seeds.European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), Hürth (Germany) (2013).

Van der Werf, Hayo MG. “Life cycle analysis of field production of fibre hemp, the effect of production practices on environmental impacts.Euphytica 140.1-2 (2004): 13-23.

Piotrowski, Stephan, and Michael Carus. “Ecological benefits of hemp and flax cultivation and products.” Nova Institute 5 (2011): 1-6.

Ventura, Anne, et al. “Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Process Modeling in a Life Cycle Context: A Case Study of Hemp Crop Production.Journal of Industrial Ecology 19.6 (2015): 978-993.

Phytoremediation Potential

Citterio, Sandra, et al. “Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Cd, Cr and Ni by Cannabis sativa L.” Plant and Soil 256.2 (2003): 243-252.

Linger, P., A. Ostwald, and J. Haensler. “Cannabis sativa L. growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: growth, cadmium uptake and photosynthesis.Biologia plantarum 49.4 (2005): 567-576.

Linger, P., et al. “Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: fibre quality and phytoremediation potential.” Industrial Crops and Products 16.1 (2002): 33-42.

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