Hemp is derived from the Cannabis sativa plant species. People across the middle latitudes of Europe and Asia have used hemp since 5000 B.C.
Historically, hemp was used for oils and ointments and but was most commonly used for textiles because of its strong fiber. In fact the term “canvas” is derived from the Latin or Greek word, cannabis or kannabis.
HEMP IS NOT MARIJUANA
Hemp and marijuana are different varieties of the same plant species Cannabis sativa. The two varieties are also in the same plant family as beer hops. Hemp is non-psychoactive, where as marijuana is psychoactive.
Hemp has low concentrations of THC, but high concentrations of CBD. Conversely, marijuana has high concentrations of THC and lower concentrations of CBD.
CBD v THC
CBD is cannabidiol. THC is tetrahydrocannabidiol. CBD is non-psychoactive. THC is psychoactive. CBD and THC are the two main cannabinoids naturally found in Cannabis varieties, like hemp and marijuana.
The human brain naturally produces cannabinoids in our endocannabinoid system. These are called endogenous cannabinoids.
Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth and protection of the countryThomas Jefferson
We shall, by and by want a world of hemp more for our own consumption.John Adams
Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere. George Washington
The hemp stalk is processed into three intermediate goods.
The bast fibers make up 25% of hemp’s stalk. The strong bast fibers are stripped from the stalk and used in textiles and biocomposites like automotive components.
The woody hurd (or core) makes up 70% of hemp’s fibrous stalk. The hurd looks similar to wood chips, and is used for animal bedding, paper and building materials.
The lignin makes up 5% or less of hemp’s stalk. It is an organic polymer or “glue” attached to the hurd. Lignin can be extracted and used for bioplastics.
Hemp is one of the strongest natural fibers in the world.
The hemp grain is processed into four intermediate goods.
Just like it sounds, grain that is toasted! Toasting adds flavor and makes the grain non-viable. Toasted grain is a great for beer and liquor!
Hemp hearts are the dehulled seed. It is the heart of the seed. It has a subtle flavor, like a sunflower seed, and are a great additive on just about anything because of the added nutritional benefit.
Cold-pressing the seeds creates hemp oil. It has a low heating value, so don’t cook with it, but it’s great in smoothies, pestos and dressings. Similar to fish oil, hemp oil is high in Omega-3, making it ideal for inflammation and digestion. The oil is also used in cosmetics, lubricants, paints, plastics and ethanol. Commonly confused with CBD oil, hemp oil DOES NOT contain CBD.
Hemp Protein or Flour
The by-product of cold-pressing oil is hemp protein. It can be further refined into flour or isolated for higher protein concentrations. It is highly digestable and is a gluten-free and nutrient-dense flour alternative.
The grain is a nutrient-dense superfood. It is high in protein, Omega-3 and eight other essential amino acids.
The hemp flowers are processed into CBD isolate or CBD Full Spectrum extracts.
Hemp produces cannabinoids in the plant’s flowers. The most concentrated cannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD). These cannabinoids are extracted from the flowers and refined into various products like tinctures, salves, balms, epidermal patches and more.
Cannabidiol - CBD
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main cannabinoid found in hemp’s flowers. The CBD is extracted and refined into CBD isolate or CBD Full Spectrum. CBD Full Spectrum contains a CBD plus a variety of other minor cannabinoids. These may be necessary for an “entrouage effect.” Commonly confused with hemp oil, CBD oil is from the flowers, not the seed.
Tetrahydrocannabidiol - THC
Tetrahydrocannabidiol (THC) is the other main cannabinoid found in cannabis and is psychoactive in high concentrations; however, by law, hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC. By comparison, hemp’s psychoactive cousin, marijuana contains more than 5% THC.
CBG, CBN and CBC
CBG, CBN and CBC are examples of minor cannabinoids found in hemp. These are less explored; but may play a vital role in our endocannabinoid system.
Hemp is one of the only plants that naturally produces cannabinoids. CBD is one of these cannabinoids. The human brain also naturally produces cannabinoids.