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Industrial Hemp Research Library Table of Contents:

(Click on a link to bring you to its section):

Building and Construction
Cannabaceae- Cannabis sativa
Life Cycle Assessments
Phytoremediation Potential


This section focuses on industrial hemp uses in the automotive sector. Several are comparative research studies determining the feasibility of industrial hemp to other similarly constructed products.

Holbery, James, and Dan Houston. “Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.Jom 58.11 (2006): 80-86.
Karus, Michael, and Markus Kaup. “Natural fibres in the European automotive industry.Journal of Industrial Hemp 7.1 (2002): 119-131.
Panthapulakkal, Suhara, and Mohini Sain. “Injection‐molded short hemp fiber/glass fiber‐reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites—Mechanical, water absorption and thermal properties.Journal of Applied Polymer Science 103.4 (2007): 2432-2441.
Wötzel, K., R. Wirth, and M. Flake. “Life cycle studies on hemp fibre reinforced components and ABS for automotive parts.” Die Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie 272.1 (1999): 121-127.


This research focuses mostly on the use of industrial hemp as a reinforced fiber in differing materials and the mechanical properties thereof.

Mohanty, A. K., et al. “Injection molded biocomposites from soy protein based bioplastic and short industrial hemp fiber.Journal of Polymers and the Environment 13.3 (2005): 279-285.
Wibowo, Arief C., et al. “Chopped industrial hemp fiber reinforced cellulosic plastic biocomposites: thermomechanical and morphological properties.Industrial & engineering chemistry research 43.16 (2004): 4883-4888.
Wretfors, Christer, et al. “Effects of fiber blending and diamines on wheat gluten materials reinforced with hemp fiber.Journal of materials science 45.15 (2010): 4196-4205.
Wretfors, Christer, et al. “Use of industrial hemp fibers to reinforce wheat gluten plastics.Journal of Polymers and the Environment 17.4 (2009): 259-266.

Building and Construction

This section focuses on the mechanical and physical properties of building with industrial hemp. The papers mostly focus on the use of the core (hurd or shiv) as a building material. One report discuss fire retardency of industrial hemp.

Arnaud, Laurent, and Etienne Gourlay. “Experimental study of parameters influencing mechanical properties of hemp concretes.Construction and building materials 28.1 (2012): 50-56.
Awwad, Elie, et al. “Sustainable construction material using hemp fibers–preliminary study.Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies. Ancona, Italy: Università Politecnica delle. 2010.
de Bruijn, Paulien Brigitte, et al. “Mechanical properties of lime–hemp concrete containing shives and fibres.Biosystems Engineering 103.4 (2009): 474-479.
Colinart, T., Patrick Glouannec, and P. Chauvelon. “Influence of the setting process and the formulation on the drying of hemp concrete.Construction and Building materials 30 (2012): 372-380.
Collet, Florence, et al. “Porous structure and water vapour sorption of hemp-based materials.Construction and building materials 22.6 (2008): 1271-1280.
Naughton, Alexander, Mizi Fan, and Julie Bregulla. “Fire resistance characterisation of hemp fibre reinforced polyester composites for use in the construction industry.Composites Part B: Engineering 60 (2014): 546-554.
Theis, M., and B. Grohe. “Biodegradable lightweight construction boards based on tannin/hexamine bonded hemp shaves.Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 60.4 (2002): 291-296.
Shea, Andy, Mike Lawrence, and Pete Walker. “Hygrothermal performance of an experimental hemp–lime building.Construction and Building Materials 36 (2012): 270-275.
Walker, Peter. “Growing your own building: Developments in straw and hemp construction.Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Non-Conventional Materials and Technologies (NOCMAT). University of Bath, 2008.

Cannabaceae- Cannabis sativa

Publications by Dr. Paul Mahlberg

Hillig, K. W. 2005. Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Gen. Resources and Crop Evol. 52. 161-180.
Hillig, K. W., and P. G. Mahlberg. 2004. Chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Amer. Jour. Bot. 91: 966- 975.
Mahlberg, P. G., and E. S. Kim. 2004. Accumulation of cannabinoids in the secretory cavity of Cannabis. Jour. lndustr. Hemp 9: 15-36.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 2003. Secretory vesicle formation in the secretory cavity of glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Mol. Cells 15: 387-395.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 2000. Early development of the secretory cavity of peltate glands in Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae). Mol. Cells 10:487-492.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1999. Immunochemical localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in chemically fixed glandualr trichomes of Cannais (Cannabaceae).
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1997. Cytochemical localization of cellulase activity associated with secretory cavity formation in glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Jour. Plant Biol. 40: 61-66.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1997. Plastid development in glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Mot. Cells 7: 352-359.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1997. lmmunochemical localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cryofixed glandular trichomes of Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 83: 336-342.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1995. Glandular cuticle formation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 82: 1207-1214.
Hammond, C.T., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1994. Phloroglucinol glucoside as a natural constituent of Cannabis sativa. Phytochemistry 37: 755-756.
Mahlberg, P. G. 1993. Laticifers: an historical perspective. Bot. Rev. 59: 1-23.
Mahlberg, P. G., and E. S. Kim. 1992. Secretory vesicle formation in glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 79:166-173.
Mahlberg, P. G., and E. S. Kim. 1991. Cuticle development on glandular trichomes of Cannabis L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78:1113-1122.
Kim, E. S., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1991. Secretory cavity development of glandular trichome of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78:220-229.
Hammond, C. T., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1990. Thin-layer chromatographic identification of phenol in the glandular secretory system of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Ind. Acad. Sci. 98:109-116.
Turner, J., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1988. In vivo incorporation of labeled precursors into cannabinoids in seedlings of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) pp. 263-270. In, G. Chesher, P. Consroe and A. Musty (eds.), Marihuana. Australian Gov’t. Publ.
Vogelmann, A., J. Turner, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1988. Cannabinoid composition in seedlings compared to adult plants of Cannabis sativa. J. Nat. Prod. 51 :1075-1079.
Vogelmann, A., J. Turner, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1987. Cannabinoid occurrence in seedlings of Cannabis sativa L.: Quantitation in seedlings of known age and primary leaf length. Bot. Gaz. 148:468-474.
Turner, J., P. G. Mahlberg, V. Lanyon, and J. Pleszczynska. 1985. A temporal study of cannabinoid composition in continual clones of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Bot. Gaz. 146:32-38.
Vogelmann, A., J. Turner, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1984. Sequential appearence of cannabinoids during seedling development in Cannabis sativa L., pp. 15-22. In, D. J. Harvey (ed.), Marihunana ’84. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. IRL Press, Oxford.
Turner, J., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1984. Effects of sample treatment on chromatographic analysis of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). J. Chromatogr. 283:165-171.
Turner, J., and P. G. Mahlberg. 1984. Separation of acid and neutral cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. using HPLC, pp. 79-88. In: “Biology of Cannabinoids,” W. Dewey, S. Agurell, and A. Willette (eds.). Academic Press, N.Y.
Mahlberg, P. G., J. Turner, J. Hemphill, and C. Hammond. 1984. Structure, development and composition of glandular trichomes of Cannabis, pp. 23-51. In: Biology and Chemistry of Plant Trichomes, E. Rodriguez, P. Healey, and I. Mehta (eds.). Pergamon Press, New York.
Mahlberg, P. G., and J. Hemphill. 1983. Effect of light quality on cannabinoid composition of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Bot. Gaz. 144:43-48.
Turner, J. and P. G. Mahlberg. 1982. Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for separating acidic and neutral cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. Jour. Chromatogr. 253:295-303.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1982. Interrelationships of glandular trichomes and cannabinoid content. II. Developing leaves of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Bull. on Narc. 33:63-71.
Furr, M. and P. G. Mahlberg. 1981. Histochemical analyses of unbranched non-articulated laticifers and capitate glandular hairs in Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Jour. Nat. Prod. 41 :153-159.
Lanyon, V., J. Turner, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1981. Quantitative analysis of cannabinoids in the secretory product from capitate-stalked glands of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Bot. Gaz. 142:316-319.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1981. Interrelationships of glandular trichomes and cannabinoid content. I: Developing pistillate bracts of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Bull. on Narc. 33:59-69.
Hemphill, J., J. Turner, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1980. Cannabinoid content of individual plant organs from different geographical strains of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Jour. Nat. Prod. 43:112-122.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1980. Trichomes and cannabinoid content in developing leaves and bracts of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 67:1397 1406.
Hammond, C. and P. G. Mahlberg. 1978. Ultrastructural development of capitate glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 65:140-151.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1978. Studies on growth and cannabinoid composition of callus derived of Cannabis sativa. Lloydia 41 :453-462.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1978. Quantitative determination of cannabinoids in individual glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 65:1103-1106.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1978. Cannabinoid composition and gland distribution in clones of Cannabis sativa L. Bull. on Narc. 30:55-65.
Hammond, C. and P. G. Mahlberg. 1977. Morphogenesis of capitate glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 64:1023-1031.
Turner, J., J. Hemphill, and P. G. Mahlberg. 1977. Gland distribution and cannabinoid content in clones of Cannabis sativa. Amer. J. Bot. 64:687-693.
Hammond, C. and P. G. Mahlberg. 1973. Morphology for glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa L. from scanning electron microscopy. Amer. J. Bot. 60:524-528.


Cannabinoids are found within industrial hemp and are also naturally produced in the human brain within the endocannabinoid system. This section consists of two areas of cannabinoids research. One section focuses on the work of Dr. Paul Mahlberg. He held one of the only licenses from the DEA to study cannabinoids from 1970 to 2007. He has made his research open source and available at The other section focuses on cannabinoids and its impact on the endocannabinoid system and on various diseases and cancers.


Di Marzo, V., and F. Piscitelli. Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 23 (5) 391–398, 2011
Di Marzo, Vincenzo, et al. Letters to Nature: Leptin-regulated endocannabinoids are involved in maintaining food intake Nature 410, 822-825, 2001
Centonze, Diego, et al. The endocannabinoid system in targeting inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences 28 (4), 180-187, 2007
Erkelens, Jacob L., and Arno Hazekamp. That which we call Indica, by any other name would smell as sweet Cannabinoids 9(1), 9-15, 2014
Goodman, N. An Overview of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System: Components and Possible Roles of this Recently Discovered Regulatory System, v1.1 May 2003, v1.2 Feb 2005
Izzo, Angelo A., et al. “Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb” Cell Press, 2009
Long, Jonathan Z., et al. Care and Feeding of the Endocannabinoid System: A Systematic Review of Potential Clinical Interventions that Upregulate the Endocannabinoid System PLoS One 9(3), e89566, 2014
Long, Jonathan Z., et al. Characterization of tunable piperidine and piperazine carbamates as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53(4): 1830–1842, 2010
Pacher, Pál, Sándor Bátkai, and George Kunos. The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy Pharmacological Reviews 58(3), 389-462, 2006
Ruhaak, Lucia Renee, et al. Evaluation of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibiting Effects of Six Major Cannabinoids Isolated from Cannabis sativa Biol. Pharm. Bull. 34(5), 774-778, 2011
Russo, Ethan B. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects British Journal of Pharmacology, 163(7), 1344-1364, 2011
Steffens, Sabine, et al. Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice Nature 434, 782-786, 2005


Huntington’s Disease

Valdeolivas, Sara, et al. “Sativex-like Combination of Phytocannabinoids is Neuroprotective in Malonate-Lesioned Rats, an Inflammatory Model of Huntington’s Disease: Role of CB1 and CB2 Receptors” ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2009

Alzheimer’s Disease

Aso, Ester, et al. “Cannabis-based medicine reduces multiple pathological processes in AβPP/PS1 mice” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2015


Biliary Tract Cancer

Leelawat, Surang, et al. “The dual effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration” Cancer Investigations, 2010

Blood Cancer

Gustafsson, Kristin, et al. “Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Growth inhibition by receptor activation” International Journal of Cancer, 2008
Jia, Wentao, et al. “Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria” Molecular Cancer Research, 2006
McKallip, Robert J., et al. “Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease” Blood, 2002

Brain Cancer

Blázquez, Cristina, et al. “Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in gliomas.” Cancer research 64.16 (2004): 5617-5623.
Massi, Paola, et al. “Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 308.3 (2004): 838-845.
Guzman, M., et al. “A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.” British journal of cancer 95.2 (2006): 197-203.
Salazar, María, et al. “Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells.The Journal of clinical investigation 119.5 (2009): 1359-1372.
Sánchez, Cristina, et al. “Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.Cancer Research 61.15 (2001): 5784-5789.
Scott, Katherine A., Angus G. Dalgleish, and Wai M. Liu. “The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model.Molecular cancer therapeutics 13.12 (2014): 2955-2967.
Vaccani, Angelo, et al. “Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor‐independent mechanism.British journal of pharmacology 144.8 (2005): 1032-1036.
Velasco, Guillermo, et al. “Cannabinoids and gliomas.” Molecular neurobiology 36.1 (2007): 60-67.

Breast Cancer

Caffarel, María M., et al. “Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy?” Cancer Treatment Reviews, 2012
Caffarel, María M., et al. “Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition.” Molecular Cancer, 2010
Caffarel, María M., et al. “Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation” Journal of Cancer Research, 2006
Ligresti, Alessia, et al. “Anti-tumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma” Journal of Pharmacology, 2006
McAllister, Sean D., et al. “Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 2007
McAllister, Sean D., et al. “Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.” Breast Cancer Research & Treatment, 2011
Melck, Dominique, et al. “Suppression of Nerve Growth Factor Trk Receptors and Prolactin Receptors by Endocannabinoids Leads to Inhibition of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation 1.” Endocrinology 141.1 (2000): 118-126.
Nasser, Mohd W., et al.“Crosstalk between chemokine receptor CXCR4 and cannabinoid receptor CB2 in modulating breast cancergrowth and invasion.” PLoS One, 2011
Takeda, Shuso, et al. “Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration.” Toxicology Letters, 2012

Colorectal Cancer

Izzo, Angelo A., and Michael Camilleri. “Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer” Pharmacological Research, 2009
Patsos, Helena A., et al. “The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2” Gut, 2005

Liver Cancer

Vara, Diana, et al. “Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma: role of AMPK-dependent activation of autophagy”
Cell Death & Differentiation, 2011

Lung Cancer

Preet, Anju, et al. “Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis.” Cancer Prevention Research, 2011Ramer, Robert, et al. “Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1.” The FASEB Journal, 2012
Preet, A., R. K. Ganju, and J. E. Groopman. “Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo” Oncogene, 2008

Mouth & Throat Cancer

Whyte, Donna A., et al. “Cannabinoids inhibit cellular respiration of human oral cancer cells” Pharmacology, 2010

Ovarian Cancer

Afaq, Farrukh, et al. “Cannabinoid receptors as a target for therapy of ovarian cancer” AACR, 2006

Prostate Cancer

Mimeault, Murielle, et al. “Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of anandamide in human prostatic cancer cell lines: implication of epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation and ceramide production” Prostate, 2003
Ramos, Juan A., and Fernando J. Bianco. “The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications” Indian Journal of Urology, 2012
Ouyang, Xue Song, et al. Id-1 stimulates serum independent prostate cancer cell proliferation through inactivation of p16INK4a/pRB pathway Carcinogenesis 23 (5), 721-725, 2002

Skin Cancer

Casanova, M. Llanos, et al. “Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors” Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2003

Uterine, Testicular, & Pancreatic Cancer

Magaya-Kalbermatten, Natalie, and CAM-Cancer Consortium. “Cannabis and cannabinoids.” (2016).

Overview Articles (All Cancers)

Blázquez, Cristina, et al. “Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids” The FASEB Journal, 2003
Chakravarti, Bandana, Janani Ravi, and Ramesh K. Ganju. “Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in cancer: current status and future implications” Oncotarget, 2014
Massi, Paola, et al. “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2013
Sarfaraz, Sami, et al. “Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and PromiseCancer Research, 2008


Life Cycle Assessments

This library contains links to published journal articles researching industrial hemp’s environmental life cycle performance. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies the environmental impact of producing a product from cradle to gate (raw material to user), cradle to grave (raw material to disposal) or cradle to cradle (raw material to material reuse). The LCAs within this library include LCAs of industrial hemp within the composite industry, construction industry, petrochemical industry, pulp paper industry, and textile industry as well as the LCA of industrial hemp field production.

Composite Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Baghaei, Behnaz, Mikael Skrifvars, and Lena Berglin. “Manufacture and characterisation of thermoplastic composites made from PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarn prepregs.” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 50 (2013): 93-101.
Bourmaud, Alain, Antoine Le Duigou, and Christophe Baley. “What is the technical and environmental interest in reusing a recycled polypropylene–hemp fibre composite?.” Polymer Degradation and Stability 96.10 (2011): 1732-1739.
Joshi, Satish V., et al. “Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?.Composites Part A: Applied science and manufacturing 35.3 (2004): 371-376.
La Rosa, A. D., et al. “Life cycle assessment of a novel hybrid glass-hemp/thermoset composite.Journal of Cleaner Production 44 (2013): 69-76.
Patel, Harish. Hemp fibre reinforced sheet moulding compounds. Diss. Queen Mary, University of London, 2012.
Ricardo da Silva Vieira, Paulo Canaveir. (2008)Life Cycle Assessment on a Bus Body Com ponent Based on Hemp Fiber and PTP.The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, , Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 368-375
Santulli, C., and A. P. Caruso. “A comparative study on falling weight impact properties of jute/epoxy and hemp/epoxy laminates.Malaysian Polymer Journal 4.1 (2009): 19-29.
Schmehl, Meike, et al. “LCA on a bus body component based on biomaterials.” Presentation at 3rd International Conference on Life Cycle Management, August. Vol. 27. 2007.
Schmidt, W. and Beyer, H., “Life Cycle Study on a Natural Fibre Reinforced Component,” SAE Technical Paper 982195, 1998, doi:10.4271/982195.
Shahzad, Asim. “Hemp fiber and its composites–a review.Journal of Composite Materials 46.8 (2012): 973-986.
Wötzel, K., Wirth, R. and Flake, M. (1999), “Life cycle studies on hemp fibre reinforced components and ABS for automotive parts. Angew. Makromol.” Chem., 272: 121–127.

Petrochemical Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Casas, Xaquín Acosta, and Joan Rieradevall i Pons. “Environmental analysis of the energy use of hemp–analysis of the comparative life cycle: diesel oil vs. hemp–diesel.International journal of agricultural resources, governance and ecology 4.2 (2005): 133-139.
González-García, Sara, et al. “Life cycle assessment of hemp hurds use in second generation ethanol production.biomass and bioenergy 36 (2012): 268-279.
Wiloso, Edi Iswanto, Reinout Heijungs, and Geert R. de Snoo. “LCA of second generation bioethanol: A review and some issues to be resolved for good LCA practice.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16.7 (2012): 5295-5308.

Construction Industry Life Cycle Assessments

Daly, Patrick, Paolo Ronchetti, and Tom Woolley. “Hemp lime bio-composite as a building material in irish construction.Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland (2012).
Ip, Kenneth, and Andrew Miller. “Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of hemp–lime wall constructions in the UK.Resources, Conservation and Recycling 69 (2012): 1-9.

Prétot, Sylvie, Florence Collet, and Charles Garnier. “Life cycle assessment of a hemp concrete wall: Impact of thickness and coating.Building and Environment 72 (2014): 223-231.

Ventura, Anne, et al. “Action-oriented Life Cycle Assessment: case study of hemp based insulation products for buildings.19th LCA case studies symposium. 2013.
Zampori, Luca, Giovanni Dotelli, and Valeria Vernelli. “Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.Environmental science & technology 47.13 (2013): 7413-7420.

Field Production Life Cycle Assessments

Carus, Michael, et al. “The European Hemp Industry: Cultivation, processing and applications for fibres, shivs and seeds.European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), Hürth (Germany) (2013).
Piotrowski, Stephan, and Michael Carus. “Ecological benefits of hemp and flax cultivation and products.” Nova Institute 5 (2011): 1-6.
Ventura, Anne, et al. “Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Process Modeling in a Life Cycle Context: A Case Study of Hemp Crop Production.Journal of Industrial Ecology 19.6 (2015): 978-993.

Hemp Pulp Industry Life Cycle Assessments

da Silva Vieira, Ricardo, et al. “Industrial hemp or eucalyptus paper?.The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15.4 (2010): 368-375.

González-García, S., et al. “Life cycle assessment of raw materials for non-wood pulp mills: Hemp and flax.Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54.11 (2010): 923-930.

Textile Industry Life Cycle Assessment

van der Werf, Hayo MG, and Lea Turunen. “The environmental impacts of the production of hemp and flax textile yarn.Industrial Crops and Products 27.1 (2008): 1-10.

Phytoremediation Potential

Phytoremediation is the ability for plants to absorb contaminants from soils, sludges, sediments, surface water and groundwater. Industrial hemp serves as a phytoremediating plant, fixing contaminated soils by pulling the contaminants into the plant. In particular, hemp loves soils containing heavy metals. These research papers discuss hemp’s ability to absorb contaminants.

Citterio, Sandra, et al. “Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Cd, Cr and Ni by Cannabis sativa L.” Plant and Soil 256.2 (2003): 243-252.
Linger, P., A. Ostwald, and J. Haensler. “Cannabis sativa L. growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: growth, cadmium uptake and photosynthesis.Biologia plantarum 49.4 (2005): 567-576.
Linger, P., et al. “Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: fibre quality and phytoremediation potential.” Industrial Crops and Products 16.1 (2002): 33-42.

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